Número: 166
Autor(es): Maria José Sousa
Mês: Julho
Ano: 2022

Digital technologies and public policies are fundamental for cities to define their urban greening strategies, and the main goal of this research is to identify in the literature and official documents the applied digital technologies and the public policies dimensions implemented at the national level by the member states to promote urban greening. The methodology used is a Systematic Literature Review (based on international studies), a Delphi study with experts, and a Policy Analysis, to understand how the Portuguese government has implemented policies and which are the main applied technologies to urban greening. The main findings are regarding (i) the focus on the interaction of actors in policymaking. (ii) Interpretive approaches examine the application of technologies in urban greening problems; and (iii) how policies reflect the social construction of 'problems'.

 

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Número: 165
Autor(es): Marta Candeias | Nuno Boavida | António Brandão Moniz
Mês: Julho
Ano: 2022

Recent developments in automation and Artificial Intelligence (AI) are leading to a wave of innovation in organizational design and changes in the workplace. Techno-optimists even named it the ‘second machine age’, arguing that it now involves the substitution of the human brain. Other authors see this as just a continuation of previous ICT developments. Potentially, automation and AI can have significant technical, economic, and social implications in firms. The paper will answer the question: what are the implications on industrial productivity and employment in the automotive sector with the recent automation trends, including AI, in Portugal? Our approach used mixed methods to conduct statistical analyses of relevant databases and interviews with experts on R&D projects related to automation and AI implementation. Results suggest that automation can have widespread adoption in the short term in the automotive sector, but AI technologies will take more time to be adopted.

 

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Número: 163
Autor(es): Anabela M. Santos | Javier Barbero Jimenez | Simone Salotti | Andrea Conte
Mês: Julho
Ano: 2022

We assess the effect of digitalisation on employment for the European Union countries, and Portugal in particular, using data for the 1995-2019 period. We estimate an augmented labour demand function derived from a Constant Elasticity of Substitution (CES) cost function to test for a capital-labour substitution effect, distinguishing between digital and traditional capital. The results point towards a positive impact of digital investments on total employment, but the effects are heterogeneous depending on the different employment categories. In particular, high-skilled jobs benefit from digitalisation at the expense of medium- and low-skilled ones.

 

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Número: 164
Autor(es): Joana Costa | Luís Carvalho
Mês: Julho
Ano: 2022

Promoting entrepreneurship has become a government priority worldwide. At the same time, digital technology has been embraced by governmental authorities, particularly focusing on digital infrastructure and online service provision. In this paper, we explore whether there might be a connection between both policy ambitions – notably at the local level. To do so, we empirically assess the relationship between different dimensions of government digitalization and entrepreneurial dynamics, using panel data from 278 Portuguese municipalities between 2014 and 2019, primarily drawn from the Portuguese survey on government ICT deployment (IUTIC) and analyzed through compared regression models. Results suggest an overall positive effect of digital government efforts on entrepreneurship.

 

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Número: 162
Autor(es): Natália Barbosa | Ana Paula Faria
Mês: Julho
Ano: 2022

Digital technologies have the scope to engender positive effects on productivity at firm and aggregate level. However, empirical evidence and theoretical contributions are ambiguous as mixed findings and diverse explanations have been put forward. We use a rich and representative sample of Portuguese firms over the period 2014-2019 to empirically assess the relationship between digital technologies adoption and productivity. Based on estimations over the entire distribution of firm’s productivity, we find that heterogeneous digital technologies affect differently the dynamics of productivity and the convergence to the frontier. This leads to mixed findings with scope to diverse impact in the aggregate productivity.

 

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Número: 161
Autor(es): António Portugal Duarte, Fátima Sol Murta
Mês: Maio
Ano: 2022

The aim of this paper is to analyze the macroeconomic impacts of the Covid-19 pandemic in the European Union (27 countries) and, particularly, in four of its economies – Germany, Spain, Italy and Portugal. For this purpose, a counterfactual analysis was conducted based on an ARIMA forecasting model through which the behavior of a set of macroeconomic variables (Gross Domestic Product, public debt, inflation rate, public deficit, and unemployment rate) is examined in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic against a hypothetical scenario without pandemic. In general, the results point to a significantly better performance of all variables in the four countries and in the European Union if the Covid-19 pandemic had not existed.

 

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Número: 160
Autor(es): Carlos Oliveira
Mês: Maio
Ano: 2022

Over the last three decades, wage inequality and the importance of the minimum wage presented an interesting negative correlation in Portugal. Using a semiparametric approach, counterfactual decomposition methods, and an extremely rich matched employer-employee dataset of all employees in the country, this paper presents significant visual and quantitative evidence of how the minimum wage structurally reshaped the wage distribution. The remarkable rise in the real minimum wage of 2006-2019 fully explained the sharp decline in wage inequality, and 40% of average wage growth - for women, who benefited the most, that was 60%. Spillover effects reached up to 40% above the minimum, being at times more important than the bite itself. The minimum wage reduced within and between wage in- equality in several fronts, cutting the gender wage gap by a quarter, potentially decreasing the returns to education, and raising wages of workers at less productive firms. While the minimum wage bite was felt in workers’ base wages, spillovers predominantly manifested in total wages.

 

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Número: 159
Autor(es): Roxanne Merenda
Mês: Janeiro
Ano: 2021

This paper exploits a panel data ranging from 2010 to 2019 to investigate firm-levelThis paper exploits a panel data ranging from 2010 to 2019 to investigate firm-leveldeterminants of export intensity in the Portuguese defense industry, using a fixed effectsmodel. As in any study exploiting corporate finance panel data, it is likely that some variablesare endogenous due to reverse causality. Although we address this issue, the interpretation ofour results cannot be fully causal. We find evidence that learning economies, proxied by exportpersistence, are the largest determinants associated with export intensity at firm level. Workerproductivity and firm size also play a positive and significant role. Financial indicators such asfinancial pressure and leverage ratio negatively correlate with export intensity, albeit notalways significantly. Finally, and contrary to the literature, we cannot find evidence that thePortuguese defense industry’s competitiveness rely on investment and R&D, nor is it impactedby geographical agglomeration.

 

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Número: 158
Autor(es): Rita Bessone Basto, Ana Martins e Guida Nogueira
Mês: Janeiro
Ano: 2021

The competitiveness of an economy increasingly depends on its ability to innovate. Theory suggests that innovation makes an important contribution to growth both at the firm level and at the national level. Innovative economies that deliver new differentiated products and services and/or develop more efficient production processes are often more productive, more resilient and adaptable in the face of adversity and change, and better able to support higher living standards and thus greater well-being. However, because knowledge is a public good, without government support, private agents are likely to underinvest in R&D, as it usually leads to higher social returns than private ones. In this context, it is strategically important to use public funds to promote innovative activity in firms to achieve the optimal level of R&D investment. Since 2000, indirect public support through tax credits has become more prominent and is currently the main form of public R&D support for most OECD countries. This paper evaluates the impact of SIFIDE, the Portuguese system of tax incentives to corporate R&D investment, on firms’ behaviour. The results show the effectiveness of SIFIDE in promoting investment in R&D, both through the impact of the program on intangible investment and on R&D staff.

 

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Número: 157
Autor(es): Ana Martins, Guida Nogueira and Eva Pereira
Mês: Janeiro
Ano: 2021

Outsourcing is one of the main drivers behind economic globalization, especially international outsourcing. In general terms it refers to the process of moving stages of production to external providers, either domestic (usually labelled as domestic outsourcing) or international (commonly labelled as offshoring or simply outsourcing). Over time, technological advances in transportation and ICT developments, led to a substantial rise in this phenomenon, growing in extent and nature, from simple to more complex tasks related to both manufactures and services supply. International outsourcing is usually expected to reduce production costs and to increase efficiency, however it has received substantial attention from policy makers for its potential negative consequences on the labour market. This paper combines Portuguese firm-level data from the International Sourcing surveys and longitudinal administrative business record data, to explore the impacts of the sourcing status on a variety of firms’ performance measures specially focusing on employment, competitiveness and productivity. The results suggest that international sourcing has an ambiguous effect on firm level total employment, but a positive effect on both the subset of workers that receive a salary (a proxy to employees) and on R&D jobs, coupled with an increasing effect on firm level total labour costs. Alongside these results, our findings also show that offshoring has a positive causal effect on both firm-level export intensity and trade balance, however the efficiency gains hypothesis was not confirmed. In fact, the results show that newly offshoring firms experienced lower labour productivity growth with a negative effect on both capital stock and capital per person employed.

 

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